In some countries, Christmas decor get taken down well after Christmas (or even New Year), but in Japan, after the 25th, it’s as if Christmas never happened. That’s because in Japan, Christmas is, like Halloween, just another fun holiday without traditional, cultural (let alone religious) significance—and the traditional winter holiday for the Japanese is oshogatsu (literally, “first month”), or New Year.
Japanese New Year celebrations are quite different from Western ones. With celebrations extending until January 3rd, New Year in Japan is a quiet, solemn, family affair, and it’s not marked by noisy reveling, fireworks, or countdown parties. In fact, most Japanese will be at home (and, if they’re not from Tokyo, in their hometowns) with their families. As busy as many people are, the working populace gets a few days off for nenmatsu nenshi (literally “end of the year and beginning of the year”).
Celebrating Japanese New Year
Ever wanted to try celebrating the New Year the way the Japanese do? Now you can learn how! Note that you don’t have to do all these things; not everyone sticks to each and every tradition, after all.
1. Invite good luck into your place with some auspicious decorations.
Walking around Tokyo, you might see kadomatsu and shimekazari adorning shops, hotels, and other establishments. They’re not just for businesses; they’re used as home ornaments as well. Kadomatsu, an ornament that is placed at an entrance, consists of three bamboo shoots of different lengths (symbolizing prosperity), pine (symbolizing longevity), and plum branches (symbolizing steadfastness). They’re said to be the temporary dwelling places of gods who visit to bless humans, and are usually burned after January 15th. Shimekazari are hung above doors, also to invite and welcome gods of good fortune and ward off evil spirits. They consist of shimenawa (a sacred straw rope), pine, and a bitter orange (a symbol of posterity), among others.
There’s also an offering to the gods called kagami mochi, two round rice cakes stacked one on top of the other and topped with an orange, which is placed on the household Shinto altar. Other lucky New Year items are hagoita (a wooden paddle used to play a badminton-like game called hanetsuki, though elaborately designed ones are purely ornamental) to hit and drive away bad luck, and hamaya (an arrow that destroys evil spirits), which is usually only sold in shrines during the first three days of the New Year. If you want to get a hagoita for the New Year, Sensoji Temple in Asakusa holds an annual hagoita market, and takes place every yearfrom December 17-19.
If you’re into crafting, some parks occasionally have crafting workshops, in which you can learn to make your own kadomatsu and/or other decorations. Some Tokyu Hands branches might also have such workshops. There isn’t really a dedicated website for parks to announce schedules of mini-events, so chancing upon one is mostly a matter of luck, and as for Tokyu Hands, you can check their event page (in Japanese) for announcements.
2. On the 31st, watch Kouhaku Uta Gassen.
Watching this long-running show, which started in 1959, has become a New Year’s Eve tradition for many Japanese families. Broadcast on the public channel NHK from around 7:15 pm until 11:45 pm, this 4.5-hour long program involves a musical battle (in fact, the title literally translates to “Red-and-White Song Battle”) between two teams consisting of the year’s most popular and commercially successful artists. The artists are invited by NHK, so to be on the show is considered an honor. The audience and judges then vote for the best team.
Kouhaku‘s ratings are no longer as high as they once were in the ’60s and ’70s, for several presumed reasons such as the advent of the internet (and perhaps people being too preoccupied with their smartphones!), but the show still has a loyal viewership base.
3. Eat toshikoshi soba, ozoni, and osechi ryori.
Ushering in good fortune is the rationale behind many Japanese New Year traditions, so it’s not surprising that some dishes are designated as luck-bringing ones. Toshikoshi soba (literally year-crossing buckwheat noodles), are served hot on New Year’s Eve to symbolize the cutting off of the year’s misfortunes, as well as wishes for good luck and long life. Meanwhile, ozoni (a savory soup with mochi), and osechi ryori (an encompassing term for dishes or food items traditionally eaten during the New Year due to symbolic value) are eaten during New Year. Basic ingredients (noodles, dashi, and soy sauce for toshikoshi soba and mochi and dashi for ozoni) aside, these dishes’ ingredients vary across households and regions. As for osechi ryori, they tend to be pricey, but we’ve written about how you can get cheaper osechi sets here.
4. Joya no kane: Ring out the old year.
A few minutes before New Year, some temples ring a large bell 108 times as part of a ritual called joya no kane. Why 108 times? In Buddhism, 108 is the number of earthly desires that cause humans much suffering, and joya no kane is supposed to purify humans’ minds and souls for the year up ahead. In Tokyo, the temples that are famous for this ceremony are Zojoji near Tokyo Tower (access: Onarimon, Daimon, or Hamamatsucho Station) and Asakusa’s Sensoji. Both get extremely crowded, so get there early! You also don’t have to worry about missing the last train home, as trains and subways will run all night until the following morning on New Year’s Eve.
5. Send nengajou: New Year’s postcards.
Although many young adults don’t send these anymore (letter-writing in general is no longer popular, after all), the fact that the post office, convenience stores, and stationery shops carry a lot of these postcards indicates the needed market for nengajou. Some families and businesses still send nengajou; think of it as the Japanese equivalent of the holiday greeting card.
They come in beautiful and/or cute designs, and the ones sold by Japan Post even come with a numerical combination as part of a lottery. The winning combinations get some prizes like cash (don’t expect much, though) or local specialties. If you and/or your friends collect postcards, a nengajou might make their New Year!
6. See hatsuhinode, the first sunrise.
Start the New Year as an early bird and catch the first sunrise! This year, the observatories at Tokyo Sky Tree and Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building are holding hatsuhinode-viewing events as early as 5:00 am on January 1st. Unfortunately, we found out that these events were only for a limited number of participants (800 for the former and 600 for the latter), which would be selected by lottery, and applications started months ago. So why not take an early-morning hike up Mt. Takao or Mt.Mitsutoge, or even go to resort areas like Hakone or Izu for hatsuhinode?
7. Hatsumode: make your first shrine or temple visit of the year.
Kick off the year by praying or wishing for prosperity, safety, and good health (and whatever else you’d like to come your way). Hatsumode traditionally refers to visiting a shrine or temple between January 1-3. Any later than the first week of January, and it’s not typically considered hatsumode anymore, even if it may be your first time stepping foot on holy ground for the year.
Any temple or shrine will do, but expect Tokyo’s popular ones—Sensoji, Zojoji, Meiji Shrine, and Kanda Myojin, in particular—to be packed. Our suggestion: skip the hours-long queue at those spots, and instead visit to a smaller, local one for a less stressful start to your New Year. You might also want to make a pilgrimage to areas beyond Tokyo that are considered sacred—more about that on Japan Cheapo.
8. Fukubukuro and New Year sales: Shop ’til you drop!
What, you thought retailers wouldn’t miss a chance to start the year right? Fukubukuro, which literally means “lucky bag,” is a bag filled with a random selection of items, usually sold for way less than the total value of the items. It’s a clever way of clearing out the previous year’s inventory, and the mystery aspect also makes it exciting for shoppers. You might just get a prized item for a steal, after all! Surprisingly, this tradition is older than you think, as it was started by the Ginza Matsuya department store in the 1900s (although it’s unclear if fukubukuro sales during that time also took place during New Year).
In addition to fukubukuro, many shops also have New Year sales, which tend to start at or past noon of January 1st. For a list of shops and their sale dates, visit our article on winter sales.
But if you want a Western-style celebration…
Since New Year’s Eve is typically spent at home with family, countdown events are not that common. However, in recent years, crowds have gathered at Shibuya Crossing on New Year’s Eve, so head there if you want a rowdier affair.
A few other places with countdown events are Odaiba’s Joypolis in the Decks Aqua City mall (access: Daiba or Tokyo Teleport Station), Ikebukuro’s Sky Circus/Sunshine 60 Observatory (access: Ikebukuro Station), Kasai-Rinkai Park’s Diamond and Flower ferris wheel (access: Kasai-Rinkai-Koen Station), and—if you want to venture a bit past Tokyo—Yokosuka’s Verney Park (access: Yokosuka Station). (Note that you’ll have to pay admission fees for the countdowns at Joypolis, Sky Circus, and Kasai-Rinkai Park.) Except for the Yokosuka countdown, don’t expect anything too rowdy; these are family-friendly events with a few entertainers and performances at best.
Of course, bars, nightclubs, and lounges throughout Tokyo will have countdown parties, too. If you’ve been a good cheapo all year and want to go all out, you’ve got some options. Read our guide to 2018 NYE parties.
If you want to celebrate with some fireworks, you’ll have to head to Yokosuka and Yokohama Hakkeijima Sea Paradise (access: Hakkeijima Station) in Kanagawa Prefecture, as Tokyo Tower has stopped holding fireworks displays during New Year. Speaking of Tokyo Tower, though, it’s a popular spot for people who aren’t spending the New Year at home to gather and celebrate. It’s known for a quiet ceremony at the stroke of midnight, when the lights and display on the tower change to indicate the new year, and revelers release balloons.
And for something a little different…
The Oji Fox Parade (access: Oji Station) is a unique way to welcome the New Year. It’s a Japanese festival, all right, but it’s not exactly a widely known tradition. Legend has it that a long, long time ago, one New Year’s Eve, some foxes dressed up as humans and visited Oji Inari Shrine. But at this festival, it’s the other way around, as humans dressed as foxes make their way to the shrine to receive some blessings. Anyone in traditional Japanese attire (kimono, happi, etc.) and with any fox-themed motif on them (e.g. makeup, fox ears) can join the parade, though pre-registration is required. If you can’t join the parade, no worries—it’s still a fantastic spectacle to watch, and if you want to transform into a fox, there’s a booth where you can get your face painted for a fee.
And although the Lunar New Year doesn’t take place on January 1st, Yokohama Chinatown’s two temples welcome January 1st with countdowns, lion dances, and firecrackers. (Of course, they also celebrate the Lunar New Year on an even grander scale.)